NO New Nuclear Weapons - NO Star Wars - EVERYTHING SHOULD BE UNDER THE SUN - NO New Nuclear Targets...
NO Weapons In Space
-
NO New Pretexts For Nuclear War - NO Nuclear Testing - NO All Types Of Weapons & War & War Culture...
We have only one WORLD yet! If we destroy it, where else will we go?
YES For The Global Peace Movement, YES Loving & Caring Each Other, YES Greatness in Humanity, YES Saving Our Unique Mother Earth,
YES Great Dreams For Better Tomorrows, YES Emerging Positive Global Energy, YES National and Global Transparency, and YES Lighting Our Souls & Minds.

Is the Earth Ready for New Millennium?

by Prof. Hayrettin KILIÇ
The GreenTank of Trunch Foundation

The use of polluted waters results in spreading of disease that kill millions and sickens more than one billion each year...

It goes without saying that we are stuck with the plant Earth we have, and as we embark on the new millennium, increasing world wide energy demands threaten our fragile environment as at no other time in history. There is urgent need for both research and education focusing on the environment, and promotion of the crucial transfer of new technology and development initiatives from developed to developing world. Within the frame work of this global view, energy and environment policy issues are no longer viewed in isolation, and there has been significant development in International awareness for sustainable non-inflationary growth respecting the environment, both for our sake and for that of future generations.

There has been a great deal of international debat for preserving the environment.  In June 1992, delegates to United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) approved three documents; the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, a Comprehensive Plan to Guide National and International Action Toward Sustainable Development, and a statement of 15 Principles for Sustainable Management of Forests.

In addition, two international treats were signed, The Conversation on Biological Diversity which went into effect December 29,1993, and The Convention on Climate Change, which, received  166 signatures and ratified by 72 countries as May 9 1994.

Recently, a number of nations have approved an addition to treaty, namely, the Kyoto Protocol, which has more powerful and legal binding measures. The main objectives of Kyoto protocol is reduce greenhouse gases emission world wide, and it entered into force on February 16 2005.

The Rio Conference is the most important example of growing international commitment to environmental protection of our plant. Driving forces of the environmental movement, including local and international NGOs, along with international institutions such as UNDP, UNEP, GEF, and of course socially and ecologically responsible individuals and politicians, are responsible for this great achievement which will affect the future of the generations, in every shape and form yet to come.

Flora, Fauna, and Humankind...

In order to gain more insight to environmental problems, the effect of the population must be addressed. Moreover, fundamental issues in both developed and developing countries must also be discussed. Population growth has a significant and complicated impact on the environment. Today, the world is experiencing the most rapid increase in human population in history. In 1950, the world population was 2.5 billion, in 1992 nearly 5 billion and this year reaching to 6 billion. By the middle of the century it is expected to reach 10 billion.

Human have had an extraordinary impact on the global environment over the past several centuries, especially in the last 50 years. It is estimated that 1.2 billion hectors or, 10.5 percent of the world’s vegetated land, has suffered degradation as result of human activity. This vast area is roughly the size of Chine and India combined. If the degraded soil is included, the total affected area rises to approximately 17 percent of global land (1). In addition, during the last few decades, coastal population has been rapidly expanding, which puts greater pressure on oceans and coastal biodiversity.

Our fragile environment suffers daily from land degrading as a result of strip miming of coal, oil-gas drilling, and acid raining. Fresh water pollution has accrued on a grand scale due to acid mine drainage, oil refinery operation, and untreated sewage discharges. Marine pollution has also occurred as a result of oil spills, chemical discharges and sewage.

Pollution of air is also an extreme concern, due to combustion of fossil fuels, divagation and deforestation. The expunging of hazardous substance has become a daily news subject in industrialized countries. Environmental problems caused by these hazardous materials may have been compounded when developing countries became industrialized.

Water supplies are contaminated by disease bearing human waste. In some regions contamination by toxic chemicals and heavy metals also occurred in grand scale. This kind of contamination is difficult to Remove from drinking water with standard purification techniques, according to World Developing Report of 1992, the use of polluted waters results in spreading of disease that kill millions and sickens more than one billion each year (2).

A number of industrialized nations still use dumping to dispose of hazardous industrial waste. The management of ocean system is not the responsibility of any one country, but rather should be a concentrated cohesive effort inclusive of all countries. Fish and pollution does not respect to national boundaries, thus uncoordinated plans of national pollution management are likely to fail. According to the World on Environment and Development,  'the effect of urban, industrial and agricultural growth pass trough currents of water and air from nation to nation, and trough complex food chains from species to species, distributing the burdens of development, if not the benefits to both the rich and the poor"(3)

A recent survey of 20 of world’s largest cities, air pollution is at levels that exceed the World Health organization’s established guidelines. All cities surveyed exceed the guidelines for at least one air pollution and 14 cities exceed the guidelines for two air pollutants. The combustion of fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas emits carbon dioxide (CO-2) and methane (CH-4) into the atmosphere, which is the largest contributor to the green house effect. Since the industrial revolution, atmosphere concentration of CO-2 has increased by about 25 percent. Emission from fossil fuel use along has increased 3.6 times since 1950. The last 50 years, fossil fuel use accelerated creating an additional 559 billion metric tons of CO-2, in addition to 187 metric tons of CO-2 created until 1950 (4) .

The annual rate of species loss might reach some 10.000 species by 1990 and 50.000 by the year of 2000.

The preservation of biological diversity is an issue of unpresented urgency. Science is discovering that the genetic variety contained in wild species can relive human suffering and improve the quality of life. Yet, the activity of exploding human populations is degrading the environment at an accelerating rate, and diversity is being irreversibly diminished trough extinction as natural habitats are destroyed (5). In 1984, based on the current estimate of 5 to 10 million species overall, Norman Myers (6) estimated that the world might be losing one species a day, or abut 400 plants and animals each year. The annual rate of species loss might reach some 10.000 species by 1990 and 50.000 by the year of 2000.

 References:

  1. World Resources 1992-1993, Oxford Univ. Press, 1993
  2. The World Bank, World Development Report, 1192 Oxford University Press N.Y 1992
  3. Wilson E. O. Biodiversity, Washington, DC (CDIAC) Oak Ridge. Tenn. 1991
  4. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Common Future, Oxford University Press. 1987.
  5. Myres, Gaia: An Atlas of Plant management (Garden City, NY; Anchor Books, 1984.
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