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Light Millennium Presented...
Cadir Hoyük has something for everyone...

Dr. Samuel PALEY, Professor of Classics, the University at Buffalo, SUNY, presenting "Çadir Hoyük - A Multi-Layered Ancient City: The Alishar Regional Project Excavation Çadir Hoyük," entitled lecture at the Turkish House on Feb. 16, 2006 in NYC.

For Media Release of the lecture>

( On February 16, 2006, Thursday at 7:00 PM, The Light Millennium presented a lecture entitled "ÇADIR HOYÜK - A MULTI-LAYERED ANCIENT CITY: The Alishar Regional Project Excavation at Cadir Hoyuk."

The lecture* was delivered by Dr. Samuel M. PALEY, Professor of Classics, at the University at Buffalo, SUNY. The presentation took place at Turkish House in New York City. The night was sponsored by the Turkish Consulate of New York.

The founding president of Light Millennium, Bircan Unver, opened with a description of the goals of Light Millennium and then introduced the speaker. Dr. Paley is Professor of Classics, at the State University of New York at Buffalo. His specialty is Ancient Near Eastern studies, his responsibility in his department. He received his degrees from Columbia University in Art History and Archaeology, and in Semitic Languages, graduating with distinction in 1974. Dr. Paley has excavated in Cyprus and Israel, where he directed a 13-year long project for the State University of New York, at a site that documented international trade among the Egyptians, Canaanites and Phoenicians. The final publications of that excavation are expected beginning in 2008. He began working in Turkey in 1993, first at Alishar, and then at Cadir. Dr. Paley joined the Cadir Hoyuk excavation because of his interest in the Assyrian presence in Turkey in the early Middle Bronze period, from the 20th to 18th centuries BC, and Cadir may sometime reward his persistence.

Bircan ÜNVER, founding president of the Light Millennium and
producer of the lecture, made the opening remarks of the evening.

Dr. Paley gave detailed information about the Alishar Regional Project along with many photographs and maps illustrating the excavation. He explained that this project has the responsibility to excavate the site of Cadir Hoyuk, in the province of Yozgat, southeast of the town of Sorgun in the Kanak Su river basin.  In 1993, the Turkish Department of Monuments and Museums gave a permit for regional survey in a 400-km2 (20 X 40 km) area surrounding the famous site of Alishar Hoyuk. The Project began to revisit sites in the region and surveyed for additional sites. Twenty-nine sites were relocated by the Alishar Regional Project, including Cadir Hoyuk.

When it was discovered that many of these archaeological sites, including Cadir Hoyuk, were threatened by a reservoir that was rising behind a newly-constructed dam near the village of Gelingullu, a permit was issued for the excavations at Cadir Hoyuk.  After several seasons (1994-1998) of test excavations and surveying the immediate area around Cadir, the test trenches were expanded into a full-scale excavation (1998-present).

Dr. Paley explained that Cadir Hoyuk is significant because it exhibits a sequence of superimposed remains similar to that of the famous site of Alishar Hoyuk, the largest in the area.  There are significant Chalcolithic (4th -early 3rd millennium BC) and Early Bronze deposits (3rd millennium BC), which can be reached quickly since they are near the surface on the southern slopes of the mound, while Middle Bronze (Assyrian Merchant Colony and Old Hittite, 20th - 17th centuries BC) remains are easily reached on the mound's eastern slopes.  Above these, and nearer to the summit, are Late Bronze (Hittite Empire, 14th and 13th centuries BC) and, on the summit, Iron Age (12th-8th centuries BC) and Byzantine (6th to 11th centuries AD) remains.  More Byzantine remains were located on the Hoyuk's eastern terrace.

He emphasized that the excavations at Çadir Höyük are helping to understand the regional chronology of the archaeology of central Anatolia. The project is examining environmental and economic changes through time and relating these to wider changes in power and population in central Anatolia. As a result of Çadir's long sequences (ca. 4500 BC - 1100 AD) the excavation staff has the opportunity to look for significant patterns, especially the relationship between environment and sociopolitical events that are impossible to see in the life of short-term sites. Çadir is an ideal site on which to integrate information from soils, vegetation, pollen cores, dendrochronology, bones, seeds, paleo-environments, and site distribution into a broader understanding of settlement. This data will provide scholars with an independent database with which to compare other sites in Anatolia and the Near East.

Dr. PALEY and the attendence of the lecture.

He also stated that they have already accumulated a great deal of data from the Byzantine and Chalcolithic periods.  The next stage of their work will allow them to add data from the Second Millennium occupation of Çadir Höyük to the overall study and reveal a broader local context through which we can understand the contributions of religion and cult to the developing social and political history of the Hittites. Çadir Höyük is a site that is not only rich in material remains, but one that promises, by virtue of its function and relationship to the Hittite capital, to provide an abundance of information related to how the Hittites maintained themselves internally, as well as how they managed the external world around them. In spite of all the excitement about excavating an important Hittite site, however, it must be kept in mind that the Second Millennium materials represents only one layer of the multi-tiered investigation taking place at Çadir and that the data from this segment of the project will feed into the wider long-term program of study that is intended to address the interaction of man with his environment and how this relationship affected the rise and fall of empires across this region. It is the only site under excavation in the area that is producing the sorts of materials capable of contributing data to answer these questions.

In their coming season, during the summer of 2006, which will be their 11th field season, they plan to expose more of the Byzantine occupation on the terrace and the summit of the höyük, expose more of the Iron Age remains, the Hittite city wall and the Old Hittite houses, and complete the excavation of the bell-shaped storage pit discovered in the last days of the excavation in 2005.

The possibility that this site can be identified with the ancient Hittite city of Zippalanda, one of the great religious centers of the Hittite Empire and the location of the temple of the Storm God of Zippalanda, contributes to the importance of this excavation.

The 2005 season was an extremely successful one.  Their continued work at this multi-period site will be able to add to the growing data about a number of periods of central Anatolian history. He mentioned that the site has something for everyone.

Dr. PALEY, during the Q&A session

After the presentation, a Q&A session took place. Dr. Paley answered the audience's questions.  He explained that this region is very significant because people have been living there for at least 6500 years. It is a very special location since it was originally founded on a hill which made it possible for communities living here to see people coming, friends or enemies. Also there is water nearby, both from the Egri Oz Su and a spring. The land is suitable for agriculture and therefore it has always been a good place people could live and prosper.

The presentation gave a unique opportunity from first hand to all interested academicians, students, (many from Columbia University), professionals and donors to the excavation who attended the event. The attendees of the lecture became familiar with the insights derived from an excavation of multi-layered civilizations and its importance to archeology and our understanding of ancient civilization. (Light Millennium, February 2006, NYC.)

Left to right: Akif KIREÇÇI, Barbara PALEY, Dr. Samuel PALEY, Bircan ÜNVER &
Figen BINGÜL posed for the Light Millennium after the lecture.

*The above summary of Dr. Paley's lecture relies on his text and notes gleaned from excavation summaries and reports provided to The Light Millenniium, Inc. for the purpose of presenting this material to the general public.

For More Information:
Çadir Höyük - The 2005 Excavation Season
The Hittite City of Zippalanda:
Religion, Social Complexity, and State Development in Hittite Anatolia
Çok katmanli antik bir sehir: Çadir Höyük (In Turkish)

* * * * *

For Media Release of the lecture>

Special Thanks to:

Omer ONHON, Turkish Consul General of New York City
Murat OMEROGLU, Vice Consul, Turkish Consulate of New York City
Ceyhun ERCIYES, Vice Consul, Turkish Consulate of New York City
Hasan OZDEMIR, Director of Turkish House, New York City
Meltem ONHON, Acting Head of the Office of Turkish Culture & Tourism, New York City

Volunteers for the event:
Baris Unver: Videography
Humeyra Kocak & Ilyas Hokkaci: Photography
Figen Bingül: Media Release

About The Light Millennium:

The Light Millennium, Inc. is a Charitable Organization with 501 (c) (3) statuses, and a Not-For-Profit Organization based in New York. Introduced in August 1999 on the Web, and established in January 2000, it was founded by Bircan Ünver on July 17, 2001 as a Public Interest Multi-Media Global Platform (;;; the Light Millennium TV Series-LMTV & various events); that e-publishes, presents and broadcasts ideas and experiences freely (without any censorship, within the publishing policy of the organization) in order to foster global positive energy and a connection among all peoples by encouraging intellectual productivity and communication.

For its Publishing Policy, see:

Bircan Ünver, Producer of the event


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